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Meditations of Marcus Aurelius

   Things Marcus Aurelius states he learned from parents, 
     grandparents, tutors, friends and others: 

      - good morals 
      - government of temper 
      - modesty   
      - manly character 
      - piety 
      - beneficence 
      - abstinence from evil deeds and evil thoughts 
      - simplicity of living 
      - to have good teachers at home rather than attend public 
      - endurance of labor 
      - to want little 
      - to work with his own hands 
      - not to meddle with other people's affairs 
      - not to be ready to listen to slander 
      - not to busy himself about trifling things 
      - not to give credit to what was said by miracle-workers and 
           jugglers about incantations and the driving away of 
           demons and such things 
      - not to breed quails for fighting, nor to give himself up 
           passionately to such things 
      - to endure freedom of speech 
      - to have become intimate with philosophy 
      - to have written dialogues in his youth 
      - to have desired a plank bed and skin, and whatever else of 
           the kind that belongs to Grecian discipline 
      - impression that his character required improvement and 
      - not to be lead astray to sophistic emulation 
      - not to write on speculative matters 
      - not to deliver little hortatory orations 
      - not to show himself off as a man who practices much 
           discipline, or does benevolent acts in order to make a
      - to abstain from rhetoric, and poetry and fine writing 
      - not to walk around in his house in his outdoor dress, nor 
           to do other things of the kind 
      - to write his letters with simplicity 
      - with respect to those who had offended him by words, or 
           done him wrong, to be easily disposed to be pacified and 
           reconciled as soon as they had shown a readiness to be 
      - to read carefully and not to be satisfied with a superficial 
           understanding of a book 
      - not to hastily give his assent to those who talk overmuch 
      - undeviating steadiness of purpose 
      - to look to nothing else, not even for a moment, except to 
      - to be always the same, in sharp pains, on the occasion of 
           the loss of a child, and in long illness 
      - to see clearly in a living example that the same man can 
           be both most resolute and yielding, and not peevish in 
           giving his instruction 
      - learned how to receive from friends what are esteemed 
           favors, without being either humbled by them or letting
           them pass unnoticed 
      - a benevolent disposition 
      - the example of a family governed in a fatherly manner 
      - the idea of living conformably to nature 
      - gravity without affectation 
      - to look carefully after the interests of friends 
      - to tolerate ignorant persons, and those who form opinions 
           without consideration   
      - to refrain from fault-finding, and not in a reproachful 
           way to chide those who uttered any barbarous of solecistic
           or strange-sounding expression  
      - to not frequently nor without necessity to say to any one, 
           or to write in a letter, that he had not leisure;  not 
           continually to excuse the neglect of duties required by 
           our relations to those with whom we live, by alleging 
           urgent occupations 
      - to be ready to speak well of teachers 
      - to love his children truly 
      - to love truth 
      - to love justice 
      - the idea of a polity in which there is the same law for 
           all, a polity administered with regard to equal rights
           and equal freedom of speech, and the idea of a kingly
           government which respects most of all the freedom of the
      - a disposition to do good 
      - to give to others readily 
      - to cherish good hopes 
      - to believe that he was loved by his friends 
      - cheerfulness in all circumstances, as well as in illness 
      - a just admixture in the moral character of sweetness and 
      - to do what was set before him without complaining 
      - love of labor and perseverance 
      - sobriety in all things and firmness, and never any mean 
           thoughts or action, nor love of novelty


   "Keep thyself then simple, good, pure, serious, free from 
   affectation, a friend of justice, a worshiper of the gods, 
   kind, affectionate, strenuous in all proper acts.  ...  
   Reverence the gods, and help men.  Short is life.  There is 
   only one fruit of this earthly life, a pious disposition and 
   social acts." 
                                                  Book 4, par. 30

   "When thou wishest to delight thyself, think of the virtues of 
   those who live with thee;  for instance, the activity of one, 
   and the modesty of another, and the liberality of a third, and 
   some other good quality of a fourth.  For nothing delights so 
   much as the examples of the virtues, when they are exhibited in 
   the morals of those who live with us and present themselves in 
   abundance, as far as is possible.  Wherefore we must keep them 
   before us." 

                                                  Book 6, par. 48

   "One thing here is worth a great deal, to pass thy life in 
   truth and justice, with a benevolent disposition even to liars 
   and unjust men." 

                                                  Book 6, par. 47

   "Such as are thy habitual thoughts, such also will be the 
   character of thy mind;  for the soul is dyed by the thoughts." 

                                                 Book 5, par. 16

   "Thou sayest, Men cannot admire the sharpness of thy wits?  So 
   be it.  But there are many other things of which thou canst not 
   say, 'I am not formed for them by nature'.  Show those 
   qualities then which are altogether in thy power: sincerity, 
   gravity, endurance of labor, aversion to pleasure, contentment 
   with thy portion and with few things, benevolence, frankness, 
   no love of superfluity, freedom from trifling magnanimity.  
   Dost thou not see how many qualities thou art immediately able 
   to exhibit, in which there is no excuse of natural incapacity 
   and unfitness, and yet thou still remainest voluntarily below 
   the mark?  Or art thou compelled through being defectively 
   furnished by nature to murmur, and to be stingy, and to 
   flatter, and to find fault with thy poor body, and to try to 
   please men, and to make great display, and to be so restless in 
   thy mind?" 

                                                  Book 5, par. 5

   "Live with the gods.  And he does live with the gods who 
   constantly shows to them that his own soul is satisfied with 
   that which is assigned to him, and that it does all that the 
   daemon wishes, which Zeus hath given to every man for his 
   guardian and guide, a portion of himself.  And this is every 
   man's understanding and reason." 

                                                  Book 5, par. 27

   "Constantly regard the universe as one living being, having one 
   substance and one soul;  and observe how all things have 
   reference to one perception, the perception of this one living 
   being;  and how all things act with one movement;  and how all 
   things are the cooperating causes of all things which exist;  
   observe too the continuous spinning of the thread and the 
   contexture of the web." 

                                                   Book 4, par. 40

   "How much trouble he avoids who does not look to see what his 
   neighbour says or does or thinks, but only to what he does 
   himself, that it may be just and pure; or as Agathon says, look 
   not round at the depraved morals of others, but run straight 
   along the line without deviating from it." 

                                                   Book 4, par. 18

   "Do not act as if thou wert going to live ten thousand years.  
   Death hangs over thee.  While thou livest, while it is in thy 
   power, be good." 

                                                   Book 4, par. 17

    "Occupy thyself with few things, says the philosopher, if thou 
   wouldst be tranquil.  ---But consider if it would not be better 
   to say, Do what is necessary, and whatever the reason of the 
   animal which is naturally social requires, and as it requires.  
   For this brings not only the tranquillity which comes from 
   doing well, but also that which comes from doing few things.  
   For the greatest part of what we say and do being unnecessary, 
   if a man takes this away, he will have more leisure and less 
   uneasiness.  Accordingly on every occasion a man should ask 
   himself, Is this one of the unnecessary things?  Now a man 
   should take away not only unnecessary acts, but also, 
   unnecessary thoughts, for thus superfluous acts will not follow 

                                                  Book 4, par. 24

   "The soul of man does violence to itself, first of all, when it 
   becomes an abscess and, as it were, a tumour on the universe, 
   so far as it can.  For to be vexed at anything which happens is 
   a separation of ourselves from nature, in some part of which 
   the natures of all other things are contained.  In the next 
   place, the soul does violence to itself when it turns away from 
   any man, or even moves towards him with the intention of 
   injuring, such as are the souls of those who are angry.  In the 
   third place, the soul does violence to itself when it is 
   overpowered by pleasure or by pain.  Fourthly, when it plays a 
   part, and does or says anything insincerely and untruly.  
   Fifthly, when it allows any act of its own and any movement to 
   be without an aim, and does anything thoughtlessly and without 
   considering what it is, it being right that even the smallest 
   things be done with reference to an end;  and the end of 
   rational animals is to follow the reason and the law of the 
   most ancient city and polity." 
                                                   Book 2, par. 16

   "What is baldness?  It is that which thou hast often seen.  And 
   on the occasion of everything which happens keep this in mind, 
   that it is that which thou hast often seen.  Everywhere up and 
   down thou wilt find the same things, with which the old 
   histories are filled, those of the middle ages and those of our 
   own day; with which cities and houses are filled now.  There is 
   nothing new: all things are both familiar and short-lived." 

                                                 Book 7, par. 1

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